Russellville During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic

Cartoon of a man next to sailors with caption: "Coughs and Sneezes Spread Diseases as dangerous as poison gas shells.Like most libraries, the Ross Pendergraft Library is committed to keeping the memory of a community preserved and accessible to all.  In the middle of our current crisis, we decided to take a trip back in time to the 1918 influenza pandemic in Russellville, Arkansas, as reported by the local newspaper, known then as the Courier Democrat (Weekly).

Using the microfilmed newspaper collection on the first floor, we scanned through issues of the local newspaper during the height of the 1918 pandemic to find out how our local area and its residents fared under similar circumstances.

The Epidemic In Russellville

Text of a headline reading, "Schools Closed by Spanish Flu"

Then as now, schools closed and public gatherings were prohibited during the height of epidemic in October of 1918.  Arkansas Tech, then known as the Second District Agricultural School, also closed. By October 10th, 1918, the influenza was reported in every county with “hundreds” of cases being reported in Russellville.

By October 17th, the newspaper reported that, “Nothing like the present epidemic of influenza has ever before been experienced in Russellville.”  At least 17 funerals were performed on a single Friday due to the “Spanish influenza.”

Obituary notices list entire families, along with numerous children, who are simply named “Baby” along with the family surname.

Text: a list of obituraries for children which are identified as "Baby Cullum, Baby Sullivan, Baby Brixey, Baby Jones."

Another reflection of these astonishing and cruel times, African-Americans in our community who died during the pandemic were segregated to separate obituary sections:Text: "Colored People" and followed by a description of an obituary for an African American man named Albert Jackson who was buried along with his familyBy October 24th, even the newspaper reporting on the influenza pandemic began to feel the impact, and the lone reporter working on that issue noted, “With only ‘our-self’ left on the job, we feel that no apology is necessary for the small paper we are publishing this week.”

This date seems to be when deaths reached its apex in Russellville.  Twenty-seven deaths were reported in one week, with most burials taking place at Oakland Cemetery.

The “Spanish” Flu

Text: "Many deaths from Spanish Influenza. Epidemic still raging in town and country, though perhaps in milder form. 27 deaths during past week. In 1918, the virus was called the “Spanish Influenza” because Spain was one of the first countries to openly report on it, due to the fact that it was not under the same media censorship as other countries fighting World War I.  It was reported in the Courier-Democrat on October 17, 1918, that the Spanish authorities repudiated the myth that it originated in Spain and instead sent a dire warning: “If the people of this country do not take care, the epidemic will become so widespread throughout the United States that soon we shall hear the disease called the ‘American’ influenza.”  Despite this, the local newspaper refers to the disease consistently as the “Spanish influenza.”

Daily Life for Individuals

In other sections of the paper, a listing of daily notices and updates were the town’s primary way of spreading news at the local family level.  These little dispatches from each community provided a quick round-up of who felt better, who was still sick, who had a birth, or who was fixing up their farm.   From “Prairie Grove, Russellville” is the simple sentence, “Everyone is still sick.”  On Colony Mountain in Lamar, the correspondent reported, “There are a few cases, but none serious.”

Text: "There is so much talk of the flu a fellow is afraid to stick his head out for fear some one will sneeze in his face."

From East Point, Russellville, a report about the rigid enforcement of the vaccination law is met by an early anti-vaccination comment: “If this is the free country we have all been fighting for, the people should have a say-so about such as that.”

Precautions and “Cures”

Text: "Spanish Influenza rapidly spreading. Persons weak and run-down easy victims--fortify yourself against it by taking tanlac."The newspaper urged the same cautions one would take to avoid the cold, including advice like, “Avoid crowds, especially indoor gatherings where ventilation is poor.”

Before stricter regulation of pharmaceuticals, many ‘tonics’ were touted as cures and promised to relieve cold and flu symptoms.  One tonic  called “Tanlac,” was featured in an advertisement disguised as a legitimate news article, providing facts about the virus before urging readers to take Tanlac, which claimed to give you “… the fighting strength to ward off the influenza germ.”   Another advertised medicine to treat influenza included “Calotab”—a laxative which promised to leave your system, “purified and refreshed.”

The Lifting of Quarantine

By October 31st of 1918, the county health officer, J.R. Linzy, lifted the quarantine for Pope county and announced it was safe for schools to resume by Monday, November 4th.  Churches could open by Saturday, November 2nd, though the health official cautioned, “We request that no one attend any of the above places when there are cases of influenza in your home.”   Many deaths were still occurring, however, with the obituary section reporting twenty deaths for that week, with space limited to just names and dates.

"Tomorrow is the first--and there is no quarantine against bill collectors. Greet them cheerfully.

On November 14th, Liberty Hill’s correspondent reported, “The flu has just about gone.  School has opened and the children are glad.”  Most of the local news at this time report a mix of flu recoveries and deaths, but they also include the usual announcements about births, visitors, crop harvests, and Sunday school meetings.  Many people are hosting parties at this time, and life seems to begin to return to normal.

Text: "No charge for delivery anywhere in the city. Everything to everybody will be cash at store or on deliver. My prices are too close to go to extra expense of bookkeeper and collector."

As we endure another week of social distancing and social isolation, it can be comforting to have the perspective of the past—to learn from our common circumstances and to be hopeful of a future end to this pandemic.  For another glimpse back at the 1918 pandemic, you can find similar primary sources online from our New York Times Digital Archive, with full-text, digitized coverage from 1853-2013, or the American Periodical Series, a premier collection of American periodicals published between 1740 and 1940.

Stay safe and stay connected to us—virtually—via chat, text, phone, social media (InstagramFacebook, or Twitter), or email.  We’ll be happy to answer research questions, help you find reference resources, or share our favorite and wildest claims from 1918 health tonics.

Text: "The writer is about run down, trying to wait on the sick folks here, so you needn't expect much news from us."

 

 

New Online Resources During Coronavirus Pandemic

During this unprecedented time where availability of online resources for teaching and learning is more critical than ever, the Ross Pendergraft Library has taken advantage of database trials and free offers to expand our collections, even if temporarily.

In the last month, we’ve brought online several databases–too many to feature here.  You can find an updated listing of new resources, updated resources, and database trials at our resource guide here: https://libguides.atu.edu/spring2020databasetrials.  A deeper dive into a few of those resources below.  Keep in mind, many of these resources are being offered until the semester is completed.

Kanopy

This is a streaming video platform available at the library through our A-to-Z list. Recently, this platform has been updated significantly and now features new videos such as The Great Courses and 16 other films and documentaries.  This newer content will be available for the next four weeks, but other videos are part of a licensed collection.  If faculty wish to order a film, they contact their departmental liaison or fill out the request form available on Kanopy via search.


Screenshot of Kanopy, featuring the Great Courses

JSTOR

The Ross Pendergraft Library now enjoys full access to all available JSTOR collections from now until June 30th.  JSTOR is a multi-disciplinary database featuring current and archived articles, primary sources, and ebooks.  Previously, we were limited to just a few of their collections like Arts and Sciences and Life Sciences.  But now, our access has expanded to articles in business, ecology, and a variety of disciplines.  We now also have access to primary source collections such as “Global Plants” and “19th Century British Plants.”  There are also several thematic collections on topics like Sustainability, Security Studies, and Lives of Literature.

Screenshot of JSTOR, a multi-disciplinary database

Social Explorer

Social Explorer is an online research tool which provides quick and easy access to historical census data and demographic information. It creates maps and reports to help users visually analyze and understand demography and social change throughout history.  The database will be on trial for the rest of the semester.

Screenshot from Social Explorer database showing that 21% of Pope County persons 18 years or older are smokers

Colonial State Papers

The Colonial State Papers offers access to over 7,000 hand-written documents and more than 40,000 bibliographic records with this incredible resource on Colonial History. In addition to Britain’s colonial relations with the Americas and other European rivals for power, this collection also covers the Caribbean and Atlantic world. It is an invaluable resource for scholars of early American history, British colonial history, Caribbean history, maritime history, Atlantic trade, plantations, and slavery.  This database is currently on trial until April 27th.

Screenshot from a result in Colonial Papers detailing an exchange regarding Salem witch trials from Governor Sir William Phips to the Earl of Nottingham

At this time, many other new resources and database trials are currently being negotiated, and we will continue to update this page as more resources come online.  Check back with us or stay tuned by following us on social media: InstagramFacebook, or Twitter.

In the meantime, stay safe, keep calm, and research on!

Coronavirus (Covid-19) News and Updates – Library Edition

April 1st, 2020 Here is the latest information, as of April 1st, concerning library policies, access, hours, and collections during the current pandemic of Covid-19.  Please note that this is a rapidly updating situation, and as we make changes to … [Continue reading]

The Fifth Annual International Film Festival, March 4th – 19th

Poster for Yojimbo

The Ross Pendergraft Library invites the campus and the community to our International Film Festival.  The festivities kick off March 4th with a screening of “Yojimbo”, a Japanese samurai film directed by Akira Kurosawa, at 7:00 PM at the Doc Bryan … [Continue reading]

Explore Abandoned Arkansas on Monday, February 10th

Poster for the Abandoned Arkansas announcing times and locaiton

Join the Ross Pendergraft Library on Monday, Feb. 10th at 7:00 P.M. in RPL 300A as we take a trip through the state’s forgotten places with authors Ginger Beck and Michael Schwarz who will discuss their book, Abandoned Arkansas: An Echo From the … [Continue reading]

Be Discovered With the Online Research Commons @ ATU

Tired of your research not getting noticed?  Worried that your work will not be valued, shared, or read by the rest of the world?  The Ross Pendergraft Library has created Tech’s very own institutional repository designed to showcase ATU faculty and … [Continue reading]

The Finals Countdown

We’re nearly there!  The final exams for Fall 2019 are on their way, and the Ross Pendergraft Library is here for you with 24-hour service, starting 7:00 AM on Wednesday, Dec. 4th, until 6:00 PM Friday, Dec. 6th. Come by in the late, late hours … [Continue reading]

POSTPONED UNTIL NOV. 18 – Hipbillies: Deep Revolution in the Arkansas Ozarks

Join us on Monday, November 18th, at 7:00 pm in RPL 300A as we welcome Dr. Jared M. Phillips, professor at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, who will discuss his recent book, Hipbillies: Deep Revolution in the Arkansas Ozarks.  … [Continue reading]

Desserts and Databases

This Friday, November 1st, from 3:00-3:30 in RCB 147, join us for a quick demonstration of the library’s latest database for statistics and data visualization: Sage State and Local Stats.  Cookies will be provided. SAGE State and Local Stats is a … [Continue reading]

Haunted Sites at Arkansas Tech University

Have you heard of the ghostly piano player at Witherspoon?  Have you felt a cold presence in Caraway Hall?  Are you worried that your classroom was built on an old Cherokee burial ground?  Does Tucker terrify you?  Prepare to be creeped out on … [Continue reading]